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Positive inotropes in heart failure: a review article
  1. Ahmad Amin1,
  2. Majid Maleki2
  1. 1Department of Heart failure and Transplantation, Rajaee Cardiovascular, Medical and Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
  2. 2Department of Cardiology, Rajaee Cardiovascular, Medical and Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ahmad Amin, Department of Heart failure and Transplantation, Rajaee Cardiovascular, Medical and Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Science Vali-Asr Ave., Niyayesh Blvd, Tehran 199691-1151, Iran; amina33{at}gmail.com

Abstract

Increasing myocardial contractility has long been considered a big help for patients with systolic heart failure, conferring an augmented haemodynamic profile in terms of higher cardiac output, lower cardiac filling pressure and better organ perfusion. Though concerns have been raised over the safety issues regarding the clinical trials of different inotropes in hearts with systolic dysfunction, they still stand as a main therapeutic strategy in many centres dealing with such patients. They must be used as short in duration, low in dose and stopped as early as possible. Evidence-based guidelines have provided clinicians with valuable data for better applying inotropes in heart failure patients. In this paper, the authors address clinical trials with different agents used for increasing cardiac contractility in heart failure patients. Furthermore, the authors focus on recent guidelines on making the most out of inotropes in heart failure patients.

  • Inotropic agents
  • heart failure
  • phosphodiesterase inhibitors
  • β agonists
  • ventricular tachycardia
  • congenital heart disease
  • Fallot's tetralogy
  • coronary artery disease
  • risk stratification
  • heart failure with normal ejection fraction
  • artificial heart
  • rejection
  • transplantation
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Footnotes

  • Competing interests None.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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