Article Text

Caudal fluoroscopy to guide venous access for pacemaker device implantation: should this now be standard practice?
  1. Hitesh C Patel1,2,
  2. Carl Hayward3,
  3. Shane Nanayakkara1,2,
  4. Archer Broughton2,
  5. Justin A Mariani1,2
  1. 1Heart Failure Research Group, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2Heart Centre, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  3. 3Barts Heart Centre, St Bartholomew's Hospital, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Hitesh C Patel, Heart Centre, Alfred Hospital, 55 Commercial Road, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia; dochiteshpatel{at}


We describe a technique that uses both posterior-anterior and caudal fluoroscopy to achieve venous access for pacemaker device implantation. A significant advantage of this technique is the ability to clearly demarcate both the anatomy of venous drainage and the lung border. We would encourage all centres to adopt this technique as a safe approach to venous access.

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  • Contributors HCP and JAM conceived this manuscript. HCP wrote the initial draft. All authors provided substantial input in writing the manuscript. All authors approved the final version.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval Alfred Low Risk Ethics Committee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement Please contact the corresponding author by email if further information is required.

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