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Caudal fluoroscopy to guide venous access for pacemaker device implantation: should this now be standard practice?

Abstract

We describe a technique that uses both posterior-anterior and caudal fluoroscopy to achieve venous access for pacemaker device implantation. A significant advantage of this technique is the ability to clearly demarcate both the anatomy of venous drainage and the lung border. We would encourage all centres to adopt this technique as a safe approach to venous access.

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