Objective The main objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the association between white rice consumption and risk of metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes.
Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from database inception through March 2016. Original studies that reported associations between white rice consumption and cardiovascular outcomes regardless of study design were selected. We extracted study characteristics and outcome data. Conflicts were resolved through consensus. Using the DerSimonian and Laird random effects models, we calculated pooled relative risks with 95% CI.
Results Our search identified 721 citations. 18 studies were included with a total of 1 777 059 individuals: 14 348 had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); 5612 had metabolic syndrome (MetS); 10 839 had coronary heart disease (CHD); and 11 698 had stroke. Compared with the lowest category, the highest category of white rice consumption was only associated with 30% higher risk of MetS (pooled OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.65; p<0.001; I²=65.5%).
Conclusions Higher white rice consumption has not been shown to be associated with increased risk of CHD, stroke and T2DM. However, white rice consumption may be associated with increased risk of MetS in certain populations
- White Rice consumption
- Cardiovascular disease
- Coronary heart disease
- Metabolic syndrome
- Type 2 diabetes
- Systematic review
Statistics from Altmetric.com
Contributors CK, AT, SC, HZ, ZS, LJP, HW had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design:CK, AT,HW. Acquisition of data: CK, LJP. Analysis and interpretation of data: CK, ZW, TS.Drafting of the manuscript: CK and ZW. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: SCh, HZ, TS. Study supervision: CK and TS.
Competing interests All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.
Patient consent This is not a human subject study.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.