Article Text

A literature review of the cardiovascular risk-assessment tools: applicability among Asian population
  1. Siow Yen Liau,
  2. M I Mohamed Izham,
  3. M A Hassali,
  4. A A Shafie
  1. Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Malaysia
  1. Correspondence to Miss Siow Yen Liau, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia; siowyenliau{at}


Background Cardiovascular diseases, the main causes of hospitalisations and death globally, have put an enormous economic burden on the healthcare system. Several risk factors are associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular events. At the heart of efficient prevention of cardiovascular disease is the concept of risk assessment. This paper aims to review the available cardiovascular risk-assessment tools and its applicability in predicting cardiovascular risk among Asian populations.

Methods A systematic search was performed using keywords as MeSH and Boolean terms.

Results A total of 25 risk-assessment tools were identified. Of these, only two risk-assessment tools (8%) were derived from an Asian population. These risk-assessment tools differ in various ways, including characteristics of the derivation sample, type of study, time frame of follow-up, end points, statistical analysis and risk factors included.

Conclusions Very few cardiovascular risk-assessment tools were developed in Asian populations. In order to accurately predict the cardiovascular risk of our population, there is a need to develop a risk-assessment tool based on local epidemiological data.

  • Risk assessment
  • cardiovascular disease
  • coronary disease
  • risk factors
  • cardiac prevention
  • coronary risk factors

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  • Funding Universiti Sains Malaysia Research University grant 2008; Healthy Campus Grant 2008.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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