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LDL particle heterogeneity, and its association with other established cardiovascular risk factors in a young Indian industrial population
  1. Ramakrishnan Lakshmy1,
  2. Prabhakaran Dorairaj2,
  3. Mohamad Tarik1,
  4. Ruby Gupta2,
  5. Kolli Srinath Reddy3
  1. 1Department of Cardiac Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
  2. 2Center for Chronic Disease Control, New Delhi, India
  3. 3Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ramakrishnan Lakshmy, Department of Cardiac Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Science, R-61, Ground Floor, CT-Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi 29, India; lakshmy_ram{at}


Objective Low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles are heterogeneous in terms of size, density, chemical composition and electric charge with certain particle of LDL being more atherogenic than the others. The present study aimed to look at the LDL particle heterogeneity, particle size and association with other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in young Indian industrial population.

Methodology 600 employees of an industry of Delhi, aged 20-39 years were selected for the study. Data on demographics, individual characteristics associated with major risk factors of CVD, past medical history, clinical and anthropometric profile was collected. Fasting glucose, lipid profile, apolipoprotein (A1, B, and E), lipoprotein (a), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and insulin were estimated. LDL particle size was determined in ethylenediamminetetraacetate (EDTA) plasma by 3% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Result We found a prevalence of small dense LDL phenotype (LDL size ≤ 26.3) in 27.4% of males and 24.0% of females. The mean waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides (TAG), cholesterol, hsCRP, apolipoprotein (A1, B and E) and insulin were higher in males whereas mean high density lipoprotein was higher in females. Females also had a significantly higher mean LDL particle diameter as compared to males.

Conclusion TAG, physical activity and lipoprotein (a) correlated with small dense LDL in this young Indian population.

  • Coronary Artery Disease
  • Lipids

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