Article Text

Effective ECG reference ranges for Northern Thai people
  1. Piyapong Khumrin1,
  2. Pratya Srisuwan2,
  3. Wongsapat Lertprayoonmit2,
  4. Linlada Leelarphat2,
  5. Chitawat Phumphuang2
  1. 1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
  2. 2Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
  1. Correspondence to Dr Piyapong Khumrin, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand; u4507075{at}


Background The numerical values and ranges of the ECG are used as criteria for classifying types of arrhythmia. However, one criterion cannot be generically applied for all patient groups. Several studies have shown that age, gender, and race are the major key factors which produce variations in ECG values.

Methods From May 2013 to February 2014, we collected 12 993 normal ECG data from 9853 Northern Thai patients at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand, to analyse their ECG reference ranges.

Results The results showed that the average heart rate decreased, while the PR interval and QTcB increased with increasing age in both genders. The normal range of heart rate was lower than the standard interval. QRS duration was stable in all age groups but longer in males than females. QRS axis deviated to the left with increasing age. SV1+RV5 amplitude slightly changed in both genders, but the upper limit crossed over the criteria of ventricular hypertrophy.

Conclusions We observed that the general trend of data was mainly similar to that found in other studies in Chinese, American, and African populations. However, some minor differences should be considered specifically for the Northern Thai population. Flexible criteria on conditions depending on age and gender should be adjusted for Northern Thai patients according to the results of this research.

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