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Cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease: a neglected subgroup
  1. Arun Kumar Subbiah,
  2. Yogesh K Chhabra,
  3. Sandeep Mahajan
  1. Department of Nephrology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Sandeep Mahajan, Department of Nephrology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India; mahajansn{at}


The burden of non-communicable diseases has increased exponentially over the past decade and they account for majority of the health-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. In line with this, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been increasing over the years. CKD progresses through stages and it is well known that patients are more likely to die than to progress to end-stage renal disease. The presence of multiple classical and novel risk factors predisposes this group of patients to premature cardiovascular mortality. Though being a common entity, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in CKD are mired with controversies. This is due to the fact that many of the well-established diagnostic modalities and treatment strategies have not been studied in detail in patients with CKD. Moreover, most of the studies have excluded patients with renal dysfunction though they are at a higher risk for adverse outcomes and require specific dose modifications. This has limited the evidence base for optimal decision making. In this review, we aim to cover the risk factors, diagnosis and effectiveness of interventional strategies in patients with CKD.


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  • Contributors SM conceptualised and reviewed the text, YKC and AKS researched the articles and wrote the manuscript.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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