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Is white rice consumption a risk for metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes? A systematic review and meta-analysis
  1. Chayakrit Krittanawong1,2,
  2. Anusith Tunhasiriwet2,
  3. HongJu Zhang2,
  4. Larry J Prokop3,
  5. Sakkarin Chirapongsathorn4,5,
  6. Tao Sun2,
  7. Zhen Wang6,7
  1. 1Department of Internal Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai St’ Luke and Mount Sinai West, New York, New York, USA
  2. 2Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
  3. 3Mayo Clinic Libraries, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
  4. 4Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
  5. 5Division of Gastroenterology, Phramongkutklao Hospital and College of Medicine, Royal Thai Army, Bangkok, Thailand
  6. 6Robert D. and Patricia E. Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
  7. 7Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Chayakrit Krittanawong, Department of Internal Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai St’ Luke and Mount Sinai West, Tenth Avenue, Suite 3A-09, New York 10019 NY, USA; chayakrit.krittanawong{at}


Objective The main objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the association between white rice consumption and risk of metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes.

Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from database inception through March 2016. Original studies that reported associations between white rice consumption and cardiovascular outcomes regardless of study design were selected. We extracted study characteristics and outcome data. Conflicts were resolved through consensus. Using the DerSimonian and Laird random effects models, we calculated pooled relative risks with 95% CI.

Results Our search identified 721 citations. 18 studies were included with a total of 1 777 059 individuals: 14 348 had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); 5612 had metabolic syndrome (MetS); 10 839 had coronary heart disease (CHD); and 11 698 had stroke. Compared with the lowest category, the highest category of white rice consumption was only associated with 30% higher risk of MetS (pooled OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.65; p<0.001; I²=65.5%).

Conclusions Higher white rice consumption has not been shown to be associated with increased risk of CHD, stroke and T2DM. However, white rice consumption may be associated with increased risk of MetS in certain populations

  • White Rice consumption
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Stroke
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Systematic review
  • Meta-analysis

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  • Contributors CK, AT, SC, HZ, ZS, LJP, HW had full access to all of the data in the study and take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Study concept and design:CK, AT,HW. Acquisition of data: CK, LJP. Analysis and interpretation of data: CK, ZW, TS.Drafting of the manuscript: CK and ZW. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: SCh, HZ, TS. Study supervision: CK and TS.

  • Competing interests All authors have completed and submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest and none were reported.

  • Patient consent This is not a human subject study.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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