Table 1

Characteristics of the study population overall and by sex (n=2310)


nTotal populationFemaleMaleP value
n (%)n (%)n (%)
2310 (100)1574 (68)736 (32)
Age groups (years)2310<0.001
 25–34288 (12.47)193 (12.26)95 (12.91)
 35–44676 (29.26523 (33.23)153 (20.79)
 45–54727 (31.47)495 (31.45)232 (31.52)
 55–64619 (26.8)363 (23.06)256 (34.78)
Ethnicity*2310
 Upper caste1254 (54.29)836 (53.11)418 (56.79)0.08
 Janajati742 (321.12)508 (32.27234 (31.79)
 Dalit314 (13.59)230 (14.6184 (11.42)
Education†2310<0.001
 Low1215 (52.6)999 (63.47)216 (29.35)
 Medium969 (41.95550 (34.94)419 (56.93)
 High126 (5.45)25 (1.59)101 (13.72)
Socioeconomic status‡23100.016
 Low817 (35.37)531 (33.74)286 (38.86)
 High1493 (64.63)1043 (66.26)450 (61.14)
  • *Ethnicity: The Health Management Information System of the Government of Nepal uses an ethnicity classification system with six categories, namely (1) Dalits, (2) Disadvantaged Janajatis, (3) Disadvantaged Non-Dalit Terai Caste Groups, (4) Religious Minorities, (5) Relatively Advantaged Janajatis and (6) Upper Caste Groups. Based on the data available, we collapsed ethnicity subgroups into three groups: (1) Upper Caste, (2) Janajati and (3) Dalit.

  • †Education as (1) low: up to primary schooling; (2) medium: up to secondary schooling; and (3) high: college or university education.

  • ‡Socioeconomic status as a monthly household income of (1) low: <20 000 Nepali rupees (NPR) or <US$200 (1 NPR=US$0.01, August 2017); and (2) high: ≥20 000 NPR or ≥US$200.