Table 1

Characteristics of individuals with hypertension who are aware and unaware of their hypertensive status, as well as those with normal blood pressure

CharacteristicWith hypertension and aware
(n=132)
With hypertension and unaware
(n=218)
pawareness With normal BP
(n=291)
pnormotensive
n (%)*n (%)*
Age (years), median (Q1, Q3)65 (55, 70)60 (50, 70)0.3360 (50, 70)0.99
Male65 (49)123 (56)0.43165 (57)1.00
Social group
 Traditionally advantaged18 (14)30 (14)1.0011 (4)<0.001
 Traditionally disadvantaged114 (86)188 (86)280 (96)
Religion
 Hindu108 (82)196 (90)0.26265 (91)0.26
 Muslim19 (14)16 (7)25 (9)
 Christian5 (4)6 (3)1 (0)
Educational attainment†
 No formal schooling69 (53)117 (54)0.96163 (57)0.99
 Less than primary school36 (28)62 (29)76 (26)
 At least primary school completed24 (19)37 (17)48 (17)
Work category
 Non-farmers‡77 (58)95 (44)0.0289 (31)0.01
 Farming and livestock55 (42)123 (56)202 (69)
Marital status
 One wife/husband83 (63)143 (66)0.89208 (71)0.24
 More than one wife/husband9 (7)18 (8)12 (4)
 Not married (divorced, widowed, never married)40 (30)57 (26)71 (25)
BMI category (kg/m2
 Underweight (<18)31 (24)54 (25)0.3093 (32)0.26
 Normal (≥18 and <23)55 (43)109 (51)135 (47)
 Overweight (≥23 and <25)/obese (≥25)43 (33)52 (24)59 (21)
WC, above normal (men, >90 cm; women, >80 cm)¶32 (24)48 (22)0.8636 (12)0.007
Blood pressure (mm Hg)
 SBP, median (Q1, Q3)150 (133, 167)148 (138, 163)0.48115 (106, 124)<0.001
 DBP, median (Q1, Q3)85 (74, 93)86 (79, 94)0.6869 (64, 76)<0.001
Physical activity, moderate/vigorous53 (40)127 (58)0.002224 (77)<0.001
Alcohol intake (in the past 12 months)18 (14)43 (20)0.4241 (14)0.17
Smoker, ever (current/past)39 (30)63 (29)0.9999 (34)0.39
Smokeless tobacco intake, ever (current/past)**52 (40)83 (38)0.96105 (36)0.87
Regular health check-up (≥1 in the past year)103 (78)116 (53)<0.001120 (41)0.02
Last time BP was measured (≤1 year ago)100 (76)76 (35)<0.001110 (38)0.75
Taking antihypertensive medication75 (57)0 (0)<0.0010 (0)
No health insurance24 (18)50 (23)0.5039 (13)0.01
Distance to health services (km)
 ≤571 (54)83 (38)0.01124 (43)0.51
 >561 (46)135 (62)167 (57)
  • P values are the outcomes of Pearson’s χ2 test for categorical data and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for continuous data. pawareness, p value for difference between those with hypertension and aware (n=132) versus those with hypertension and unaware (n=218). pnormotensive, p value for difference between those with hypertension and unaware (n=218) versus with normal blood pressure (n=291). P values are adjusted by the Dunn-Sidak correction to account for the fact that two comparisons were made.

  • *Percentage unless otherwise specified.

  • †Nine observations missing.

  • ‡Individuals in this category of work were either employed, homemaker, student or retired.

  • §Ten observations missing.

  • ¶Four observations missing.

  • **Two observations missing.

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; Q1, quartile 1; Q3, quartile 3; SBP, systolic blood pressure; WC, waist circumference.