Table 1

Classification of sports on the basis of physiological demands and predominant energy system used based on playing and training regimes

Type of sportSport (numbers in brackets)
Continuous (103)Long distance athletics (2), Cycling (25), Kayaking (29), Rowing (19), Swimming (15), Water Polo* (13)
Repeated effort (133)Sprint athletics (4), Basketball (21), Beach Volleyball* (11), BMX cycling (2), Football (soccer) (11), Field Hockey (22), Netball (38), Volleyball* (24)
Static (37)Baseball (10), Bowling (1), Diving (6), Equestrian (4), Gymnastics (2), Judo (1), Shooting (6), Trampoline (6), Weightlifting (1)
  • (1) Continuous=performance occurs at a high percentage of maximal oxygen uptake with predominately a continuous consistent effort. (2) Repeated effort=performance occurs at a high percentage of maximal oxygen uptake with repeated sprinting and/or jumping efforts and (3) Static=performance occurs at a lower percentage of maximal oxygen uptake and generally of a static nature.

  • *Principally the sports were classified on the basis of the training regime implemented. Thus, the author has confidence in the classification of water polo in predominately continuous and volleyball (beach and indoor) in predominately repeated effort sports.