Table 1

Patient characteristics and comorbid conditions at hospital admission

All strokesAcute ischaemic strokeIntracerebral haemorrhageStroke of undetermined pathology
HF (n=15 397)No HF (n=593 493)HF (n=11 522)No HF (n=359 005)HF (n=2464)No HF (n=170 772)HF (n=1411)No HF (n=63 716)
Age66.97 (13.81)64.22 (13.71)67.49 (13.70)65.47 (13.24)63.69 (14.08)61.12 (14.28)68.46 (1.40)65.47 (13.41)
Sex
 Male6989 (45.40)328 328 (55.32)5174 (44.91)192 553 (53.64)1204 (48.86)102 204 (59.85)611 (43.30)33 571 (52.69)
 Female8408 (54.61)265 165 (44.68)6348 (55.09)166 452 (46.36)1260 (51.14)68 568 (40.15)800 (56.70)30 145 (47.31)
Length of stay6 (3–12)3 (2–7)6 (3–12)3 (2–6)7 (3–19)5 (2–11)4 (2–8)3 (2–5)
Comorbidities on admission
 Hypertension8398 (54.54)289 539 (48.79)6037 (52.40)170 207 (47.41)1660 (67.37)93 184 (54.57)701 (49.68)26 148 (41.04)
 Diabetes mellitus3565 (23.15)100 563 (16.94)2729 (23.69)72 705 (20.25)538 (21.83)16 379 (9.59)298 (21.12)11 479 (18.02)
 Dyslipidaemia3859 (25.06)139 704 (23.54)3180 (27.60)112 032 (31.21)390 (15.83)15 097 (8.84)289 (20.48)*12 575 (19.74)*
 Ischaemic heart disease2400 (15.59)16 161 (2.72)1861 (16.15)12 196 (3.40)289 (11.73)2251 (1.32)250 (17.72)1714 (2.69)
 Valvular disease1626 (10.56)8746 (1.47)1326 (11.51)7022 (1.96)174 (7.06)862 (0.50)126 (8.93)862 (1.35)
 Atrial fibrillation5075 (32.96)35 173 (5.93)4230 (36.71)29 240 (8.14)453 (18.38)2973 (1.74)392 (27.78)2960 (4.65)
 Arrhythmia421 (2.73)4374 (0.74)331 (2.87)3259 (0.91)55 (2.23)657 (0.38)35 (2.48)458 (0.72)
 Peripheral vascular disease108 (0.70)1486 (0.25)85 (0.74)1067 (0.30)16 (0.65)316 (0.19)7 (0.50)103 (0.16)
 Cancers103 (0.67)*3136 (0.53)*89 (0.77)*2094 (0.58)*10 (0.41)*753 (0.44)*4 (0.28)*289 (0.45)*
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease756 (4.91)10 131 (1.71)563 (4.89)6856 (1.91)107 (4.34)2126 (1.24)86 (6.09)1149 (1.80)
 Chronic kidney disease2085 (13.54)31 173 (5.25)1549 (13.44)21 167 (5.90)355 (14.41)6850 (4.01)181 (12.83)3156 (4.95)
 Liver disease307 (1.99)7302 (1.23)222 (1.93)3597 (1.00)62 (2.52)*3149 (1.84)*23 (1.63)556 (0.87)
 Anaemia2190 (14.22)39 809 (6.71)1547 (13.43)22 748 (6.34)476 (19.32)14 071 (8.24)167 (11.84)2990 (4.69)
 Alcohol-related disorders92 (0.60)7129 (1.20)66 (0.57)3151 (0.88)22 (0.89)3485 (2.04)4 (0.28)*493 (0.77)*
 Neurodegenerative disorders251 (1.63)5811 (0.98)213 (1.85)4695 (1.31)18 (0.73)607 (0.36)20 (1.42)*509 (0.80)*
  • Continuous normally distributed variables (age) are presented as mean (SD), while continuous non-normal variables (length of stay) are presented as median (IQR). Categorical variables are presented as frequency (percentage). All between-group differences are statistically significant (p<0.01) unless otherwise specified.

  • *Between-group difference not statistically significant (p>0.01).

  • HF, heart failure.