Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study population (n=1069)

ControlHYPTHFpEFP value
Age, years55.2±10.062.4±8.868.2±11.5<0.001
Sex, male (%)270 (45)128 (58)118 (49)0.003
 Chinese418 (69)181 (82)151 (62)0.001
 Malay121 (20)29 (13)67 (28)
 Indian41 (7)10 (5)21 (9)
Height, m1.61±0.091.61±0.081.58±0.080.001
Weight, kg62.9±12.366.2±11.469.8±15.7<0.001
BMI, kg/m2 24.3±4.025.7±3.627.9±5.9<0.001
SBP, mm Hg125.9±17.1142.7±16.5133.2±21.8<0.001
DBP, mm Hg73.7±10.781.1±10.270.7±12.3<0.001
Hear rate, beats per minute67.3±9.866.6±9.872.4±12.8<0.001
RaVL, mm3.7±2.85.3±3.06.6±4.3<0.001
SV3, mm7.5±4.09.2±4.410.7±6.7<0.001
QRS duration, ms85.4±11.488.0±12.193.6±15.3<0.001
Cornell product*, mm*ms924 (624, 1248)1210 (913, 1633)1523 (979, 2126)<0.001
E/e′ ratio8.1±2.39.6±2.914.5±7.4<0.001
LVMI, g/m2 77.3±18.290.3±19.9113.4±31.0<0.001
NT-proBNP*, pg/mL50 (28, 81)60 (32, 101)1026 (345, 2385)<0.001
All-cause deaths0029 (13)NA
First HF admission on enrolment0061 (25)NA
  • Differences in baseline characteristics across all three groups studied.

  • *Expressed as median (IQR), all other values expressed as average±SD.

  • BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; E/e', Average mitral annular E velocity to e' ratio; HF, heart failure; HFpEF, HF with preserved ejection fraction; HR, hazard ratio; HYPT, hypertension without heart failure; LVMI, left ventricular mass index; NA, Not available; NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide; RaVL, amplitude of R wave in aVL; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SV3, depth of S wave in V3.