Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the patients

CharacteristicsTotal (n=240)Frail (n=120)Non-frail (n=120)P value*
Female, n (%)103 (42.9)67 (55.8)36 (30.0)<0.001
Age, years76.1±1081.2±7.871.0±10<0.001
Weight, kg57.0 (48.4–64.9)52.5 (44.3–60.0)60.5 (53.5–67.0)<0.001
CFS4.5 (3.0–6.0)6.0 (6.0–7.0)3.0 (3.0–4.0)<0.001
Hypertension, n (%)147 (61.3)78 (65.0)69 (57.5)0.233
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)42 (17.5)22 (18.3)20 (16.7)0.734
Smoking, n (%)118 (49.2)49 (40.8)69 (57.5)0.010
Heart failure, n (%)101 (42.1)53 (44.2)48 (40.0)0.513
Bleeding history, n (%)14 (5.8)9 (7.5)5 (4.2)0.271
Stroke/TIA, n (%)103 (42.9)70 (58.3)33 (27.5)<0.001
Paroxysmal AF, n (%)126 (52.9)56 (46.7)70 (58.3)0.070
CHA2DS2-VASc score4 (3–5)5 (4–6)3 (2–4)<0.001
HAS-BLED score2 (1–2)2 (1–2)1 (1–2)<0.001
BUN (mg/dL)17 (13–21)17 (12–21)16 (13–20)0.855
eGFR (mL/min/m2)63.8 (51.7–78.1)67.0 (51.8–82.6)62.7 (51.7–72.0)0.124
Albumin (g/dL)3.6 (3.1–4.0)3.3 (2.7–3.7)4.0 (3.5–4.2)<0.001
Hb (mg/dL)12.9 (11.2–14.2)12.3 (10.7–13.3)13.7 (12.2–14.7)<0.001
DOAC under-dosed (%)20 (8.3)8 (6.7)12 (10)0.350
DOAC over-dosed (%)13 (5.4)5 (4.2)8 (6.7)0.392
β-blocker, n (%)118 (49.2)56 (46.7)62 (51.7)0.439
ACE-I/ARB, n (%)87 (36.3)38 (31.7)49 (40.8)0.140
Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, n (%)37 (15.4)23 (19.2)14 (11.7)0.108
Antiplatelet drugs, n (%)39 (16.3)19 (15.8)20 (16.7)0.861
Malignancy, n (%)20 (8.3)13 (10.8)7 (5.8)0.161
  • Values are presented as mean±SD, median (IQR) or n (%).

  • *P value for comparison between frail and non-frail from log-rank test.

  • ACE-I, ACE inhibitor; AF, atrial fibrillation; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; CFS, Clinical Frailty Scale; DOAC, direct oral anticoagulants; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.