Table 1

Clinical characteristics

PeAF (n=21)PAF (n=67)P value
Age (yrs)73.6±6.773.7±6.70.945
Sex (male; n, %)14 (66.7%)28 (41.8%)0.0464
Body height (cm)161.9±8.6158.7±8.20.130
Body weight (kg)64.8±14.860.0±13.70.1786
BMI (kg/m²)24.6±4.723.6±4.10.3771
PQ time (ms)187.9±44.0179.6±32.80.3569
E wave (cm/s)65.1±18.766.1±17.60.8235
A wave (cm/s)70.6±13.580.7±18.20.0224
E/A0.988±0.460.88±0.550.4643
DcT (ms)228.2±43.1237.9±70.90.5566
e′ (cm/s)5.71±1.686.32±1.610.137
E/e′11.92±3.8210.80±2.960.1621
LVEF (%)65.6±4.866.6±5.40.4882
LAD (mm)40.5±5.037.8±5.70.0524
BNP (pg/mL)55.7±33.453.4±43.40.8217
WBC (/µL)6289.0±1250.35891.2±1838.80.3576
Hb (g/dL)13.4±1.813.5±1.40.914
Cr (mg/dL)0.83±0.230.86±0.230.6945
HTN15 (71.4%)44 (65.7%)0.6243
HL10 (47.6%)34 (50.8%)0.8025
DM5 (23.8%)16 (23.9%)0.995
β-blocker4 (19.1%)9 (13.4%)0.5269
Antiarrhythmics11 (52.4%)39 (58.2%)0.638
CCB12 (57.1%)31 (46.3%)0.3844
ARB/ACE-I12 (57.1%)34 (50.8%)0.6086
Anticoagulants13 (61.9%)31 (46.3%)0.2111
Smoking11 (52.4%)22 (32.8%)0.1065
Ischaemic stroke3 (14.3%)5 (7.5%)0.3426
  • A, atrial inflow velocity; ACE-I, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; CCB, calcium channel blocker; Cr, creatinine; DM, diabetes mellitus; DcT, deceleration time; E, early inflow velocity; HL, hyperlipidaemia; HTN, hypertension; Hb, haemoglobin; LAD, left atrial diameter; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; PeAF, permanent atrial fibrillation; WBC, white blood cell.