Article Text

Valvular regurgitation and stenosis: when is surgery required?
  1. R Goel,
  2. P P Sengupta,
  3. F Mookadam,
  4. H P Chaliki,
  5. B K Khandheria,
  6. A J Tajik
  1. Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr A J Tajik, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, 5777 E Mayo Blvd, Phoenix, AZ 85054, USA; tajik{at}


Valvular heart disease is a growing public health problem, with an increasing prevalence due to an ageing population. Despite advances, the medical management of symptomatic valvular heart diseases remains suboptimal, necessitating surgical correction. The challenge remains in identifying an asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patient who will benefit from timely surgery before irreversible changes in cardiac function have occurred. The potential risks of surgery versus watchful expectancy require careful decision-making. This review is a focused update on the existing guidelines and identifies the knowledge gaps and avenues of future research in the management of patients with valvular heart diseases

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  • Competing interests None.

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