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Acceleration of cardiovascular-biological age by amphetamine exposure is a power function of chronological age
  1. Albert Stuart Reece,
  2. Amanda Norman,
  3. Gary Kenneth Hulse
  1. School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia
  1. Correspondence to Associate Professor Albert Stuart Reece, 39 Gladstone Rd., Highgate Hill, Brisbane, Queensland, 6008 Australia; sreece{at}bigpond.net.au

Abstract

Background Amphetamine abuse is becoming more widespread internationally. The possibility that its many cardiovascular complications are associated with a prematurely aged cardiovascular system, and indeed biological organism systemically, has not been addressed.

Methods Radial arterial pulse tonometry was performed using the SphygmoCor system (Sydney). 55 amphetamine exposed patients were compared with 107 tobacco smokers, 483 non-smokers and 68 methadone patients (total=713 patients) from 2006 to 2011. A cardiovascular-biological age (VA) was determined.

Results The age of the patient groups was 30.03±0.51–40.45±1.15 years. This was controlled for with linear regression. The sex ratio was the same in all groups. 94% of amphetamine exposed patients had used amphetamine in the previous week. When the (log) VA was regressed against the chronological age (CA) and a substance-type group in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, models quadratic in CA were superior to linear models (both p<0.02). When log VA/CA was regressed in a mixed effects model against time, body mass index, CA and drug type, the cubic model was superior to the linear model (p=0.001). Interactions between CA, (CA)2 and (CA)3 on the one hand and exposure type were significant from p=0.0120. The effects of amphetamine exposure persisted after adjustment for all known cardiovascular risk factors (p<0.0001).

Conclusions These results show that subacute exposure to amphetamines is associated with an advancement of cardiovascular-organismal age both over age and over time, and is robust to adjustment. That this is associated with power functions of age implies a feed-forward positively reinforcing exacerbation of the underlying ageing process.

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Footnotes

  • Contributors ASR designed the study, treated the patients, conducted the RAPWT studies, analysed the data and wrote the initial draft of the paper. GKH gave advice on study design, and data analysis, wrote the paper and assisted with literature review. AN assisted with literature review and wrote the paper.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval Southcity Medical Centre Human Research Ethics Committee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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